From the perspective of Western perspectives, Chinese philosophy and civilization
July 09, 2024 10:47 Source: "China Social Sciences", July 9, 2024, Issue 2929, Issue 2929





    ◇ [UK] Steve Fuller/Wen Lianzhi Leisure/Translation

The understanding of "Chinese Philosophy and Civilisation" under Western perspective is very different from China's own understanding。Various discussions in the West to China make the West facing the identity of the West,Western views on China are often mapping for Western concepts。Chinese civilization is comparable to European civilization in terms of ideological achievements and material achievements,but did not develop along the historical trajectory of Europe,At least in the second half of the 19th century, Europe began to have a strong sense of existence in the "Far East".。Depart from this level,China is indeed the "other" of the West。Most of the time in Chinese history,Chinese civilization develops according to its own trajectory,Few is affected by the West,But achieved a deep achievement that made the West。

But the meaning of the "other" commonly used by Westerners is different。Generally speaking,"Others" in the West refers to various cultures colonized by Europeans after the end of the 15th century。Under the "European Center",Other regions and other cultures are the "others" in Europe,Europe's inspection and interpretation of other civilizations are based on this sense of superiority。The Second World War ended this imperialist consciousness to a large extent,Since then,Culture that was affected by colonization became a proof of criticizing the "European Centralism" worldview。Classic works in this area include "The Wretched of the Earth" and Edward Said (The Wretched of the Earth "(The Wretched of the Earth" (The Wretched of the Earth "(Edward Said" (Edward Said "( Orientalism),Among them, "Others" are described as African races and Arab Islamic Worlds。but but,From the perspective of Chinese people,Such colonial research seems to be a dialogue with yourself in the West to understand his own history。

British biochemist、Historian Joseph Needham understands China as "" Others' "who is comparable to European achievements",His multi -volume of "Science and Civilisation in China" is still a example of Euro 2024 top scorer oddsthe contact between Europe and China。Li Joseph raised an important issue in the book: ancient China made many important contributions to the development of human science and technology,in technology、Politics and economy is much more advanced than Europe,Why did the scientific revolution and the industrial revolution not first happened in modern China? The premise of raising this question is,I believe that both China and Europe have been working hard in the direction of modern science,Europe is just a step first,Li Joseph, who lives in the mid -20th century, can easily make such assumptions。But,whether the intellectual elites of China and Europe have similar knowledge and goals for their respective society,This is very uncertain。Despite this,Lee Joseph did notice the two common differences between these two civilizations,These two differences reflect the different worldview of the two sides。The following I interpret Li Joseph's opinion in conjunction with the current situation,To explain how we should look at these differences。

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The first key difference between China and Europe noticed by Joseph is,China’s scientific and technological innovation serves national strategy,Europe lacks this political unity。In addition to the threat of the country during the war,Most innovative activities in the West are not performed under the commission of the country。China in history as a vast country,It can maintain the overall stability for a long time without the need for continuous spontaneous innovation,This has always impressed Europeans。For this,Some modern Western philosophers, especially Hegel, think,China is in a stagnant static state。but but,There are very few related views that Western intellectuals support Hegel。

Lack of political unity has always been a sensitive point for European Christians,The adjacent Muslims are more united,European Christians are worried about Islamic expansion。Current,Europeans' concerns about "conflict between civilization" and "great replacement" have aroused debate on immigration issues,This can be traced back to this。

But,Some contradictions are,Christian's human view desires to form a knowledge,This kind of knowledge is not only helps the manager,It also 024 European Cup Bettinghelps to manage nature,It is even suitable for the entire universe。From this sense,The scientific revolution is a hard work made by "heresy",Its purpose is to reiterate this view that humans in the Bible are created in accordance with the image of God。This also helps to explain the trend of "Empire Excessive Expansion" in the West,This expansion has extended to land or even space that far beyond its natural border。

Even from the perspective inside the West,Western expansionism is not always considered a good thing。Faust sells the soul to the devil to gain divine power,This image occupies an important position in Western modern art and literature。other,The reason why Westerners dare to adventure,To a large extent, because they believe that they cannot solve the long -term problems in China through conventional means。Since the scientific revolution,Western society has experienced rapid and diverse changes,Need to face many problems at the same time。So,Western society's willingness to "try completely different things" is more intense。They think,The future openness is not so much a threat,might as well be an opportunity。This is also in line with a certain image of God,That is, God is constantly creating the universe,So,Miracle is possible。Now,These miracles are associated with "Innovation",Innovation enables entrepreneurs to play its extraordinary traits,The fundamental reconstruction of society through the market,Henry Ford (Henry Ford) is a typical case。

This is in sharp contrast to Chinese history。China has opened a journey similar to "Geographical Discovery" in Europe in the 15th century,But this time has not lasted for a long time。Because the ruler at the time decided to focus on dealing with domestic problems,and think that it is best to solve related problems through domestic solutions,instead of resorting to any method that may be found overseas。From the perspective of Westerners today,This is a strategy of avoiding risks。After being surrounded by imperialist powers,Start the extensive "defensive modernization" strategy,Translation、Learn Western philosophy and scientific works。Both Chinese and Western parties have an interesting characteristic,That is,Dispute ideas in the original environment are sometimes more easily Top scorer of European Cup 2024accepted。where,Very worth noting is,Darwin "Get Steaming Heaven,4199_4225,Because there is no related view of the sacred privileges that are not in Christianity in Christianity in Chinese culture。

 The boundary between theory and practice

The second key difference between China and Europe noticed by Joseph is,China is more effective in region of theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge。China has similarity with ancient Greece in this regard。Plato imagined the knowledge level system that reflects social order,and the mixed attitude of the theoretical and practical knowledge。This also explains why the ancient Greeks could propose such a rich and later idea of ​​becoming the core essential of the European scientific revolution,I have never put it into practice。Actually,In Plato's ideal middle school,"Philharmonic King" before obtaining the right to rule,Use most of the time in life for theoretical research,During this time,He will generate immunity to the various flashy of real life。

Compared with the ancient Greeks,Chinese people's views on theoretical knowledge seem to be more polarized,I can think about this by comparing Confucianism and Taoist thoughts。From the perspective of the West,Basic thoughts and principles of Confucianism and Taoism can lay the foundation for humanities science and natural sciences,But they have not developed so。Confucianism uses social order as a model for the entire human situation,and Taoism take nature as the object of thinking rather than interactive。The former relies on the court,The latter lives in the countryside。They are not inclined to conduct comparative research and experimental research,To test the exact boundary of your knowledge proposition。The same important thing is,Similar to ancient Greece,Confucianism and Taoism accepted the necessity of harmonious coexistence of man and nature in different ways。The "heresy Christian" behind the European Scientific Revolution challenged and committed to overthrowing this hypothesis,In this process,They completely changed the meaning of "theoretical" knowledge and "practical" knowledge。

The key here is,Christianity's understanding of human nature is contradictory,This is more prominent compared to Judaism or Islam。On the one hand,Christianity believes that humans are created 2024 European Cup live betting websiteaccording to the image of God; on the other hand,,I also think that humans are in a "degeneration" state,This is caused by the judgment of the ancestor Adam,"Original Sin"。The daily performance of human "degeneration" is mainly reflected in the need to compete with other natural creatures for survival,For centuries,Human survival is not a problem,But in view of the current climate crisis,The competition between people and nature is not optimistic。Since 2000,Christian theological debate has been trying to explain this,It is generally believed that all parties generally think,The body and spiritual weakness that hinders humans can be traced back to the "animal nature" of human beings。In fact,This is why Darwin's theory of evolution originated in Europe,But many people in Western countries still oppose evolution theory。Darwin thinks,Human beings are just Homers,is one of the many species that temporarily survive on the earth。For many Christians,If Darwin is correct,Then God's redemption will not be established。

This unique religious vision completely changed the concept of ancient theory and practical knowledge,Finally triggered the scientific revolution in Europe,It shows how people start to reflect on how to meet the spiritual and material needs。Early Europeans asked questions,Is our spiritual and material reserves sufficient to overcome animal nature? The nature of human "falling" clearly indicates,Answer is negative,Therefore, people need to take more powerful measures。Francis Bacon (Francis Bacon) emphasized the role of observation and experiments in the process of understanding the world in the book "New Tools"。Similar,Rene Descartes also wrote "Rules for Guiding the Soul"。These concepts require people to abandon many beliefs and practices of several centuries。People attach importance to records and check the results of observation,Not only for a practical goal,The reliability of the test and ultimately improves the practical method。In this regard,The Scientific Revolution created a precedent,The West began to do n’t trust those knowledge claims that they did not think of the correct method。

In the early days of Europeans believed,Reality itself is the language -like,Use today's term to express it is "encoding"2024 European Cup live betting website。Earlier Europeans in modern times just practiced the belief of Christians in 1500 years。In short,This is "New Education"。In fact,A doctrine of early Christianity was emphasized in the scientific revolution,That is, nature itself is a book created by God,Is the "Second Bible"。Early Europeans interpreted this ancient thought as "Book of Nature",Written by mathematical language。Among all creatures,Human is unique,Because they have the sacred ability of language expression and mathematics expression。Bacon、Galileo、Descartes and Newton and other scientific revolution leaders think,The road of human redemption is at least part of the way to understand nature by understanding the Bible。

  Chinese and Western concepts have their own long roots

Since modern times,The relationship between the West and China is fascinating,Full of misunderstanding,All of the above are worthy of our mind。At the end of the 17th century,Gottfrid Wilhelm Leibniz (Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz) proposed that Chinese characters can be used as the basis for the world's common language,This conclusion was obtained from a report from the Jesuit missionaries to China。These reports believe,Chinese characters are not phonetic text,Each Chinese character is expressing a certain meaning。This means that the Chinese have designed methods to convey ideas,More pure than using conflict language、Simple。But,He discovered disappointed,The Chinese do not agree with his view of Chinese。They think more directly,Chinese is an effective communication medium,It can be used in vast space and time,But only applicable to China。

This section of interpretation of poor communication is still meaningful today。Current,China's rise has become a big country,A significant feature of the exchange mode between China and the United States is the difference in the starting point。On the one hand,The United States tends to emphasize the necessity of a standard order,and often hint,China hopes to be outside this order。On the other hand,China tends to emphasize the diversity of the people of the world,It advocates letting people from all countries take their own way and seek mutual benefit。These two stances have a long -term and intricate historical roots in each of them。

2024 European Cup live betting websiteFrench political economist Francois Quesnay in the 18th century Francois Quesnay absorbed the Taoist "inaction" thought from the Jesuit missionaries,Created the word "Laissez-Faire"。Since then,"Freedom Layon" represents a correction on the supply of national licensed goods and services (that is, reconstruction) that prevailed in Europe at that time。Modern capitalism occurs at this moment of cross -cultural influence,It can be said,This moment has a profound impact on the formation of the world today。I think,People in today's era are higher risks,This is the capable range of the different conditions of "people"。Understanding the differences in history and development is important for building the future。

  (The author is the Academician of the School of Social Sciences、At the Department of Sociology at Winwei's Sociology, August Contest Social Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Conceptual Chair Professor)

Editor in charge: Cui Bohan
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